Supeplastifikatory - additives for concrete and mortar. This organic and inorganic substances and their mixtures (complexes), through which the introduction of concrete and concrete mixers are governed directed and controlled by the properties of concrete, and these mixtures. The purpose of the use of additives is to reduce the construction cost (including the saving of cement), changed the quality and functional characteristics of concrete and maintain its properties in preparation for the laying of concrete mixture, vibrirovanii, hardening. They are divided into two groups. First, the chemicals entered into the concrete in a small number to change in the required direction of the properties of concrete mix and concrete. Others include tonkomolotye material (ash, milled slag, sand, waste kamnedrobleniya) added to the concrete in the amount of 5-20% and more to save cement or concrete to get tight at small cost of cement. Also, the addition of these additives can be given a concrete special properties (increasing the density, heat resistance, changing the electrical conductivity, okrashivayuschie, etc.).

According to the destination (the main effect of actions) are the types of additives:

Additives, which govern the properties of concrete mixtures and plants

- plasticizers:
- plasticizers group I (superplastifikatory);
- plasticizers group II (silnoplastifitsiruyuschie);
- plasticizers group III (sredneplastifitsiruyuschie);
- plasticizers IV group (slaboplastifitsiruyuschie);
- stabilizing (reduce rasslaivaemosti concrete mix);
- vodouderzhivayuschie;
- additives that improve perekachivanie concrete;
- additives that improve sohranyaemost concrete mixtures (is accelerating or slowing the loss of mobility of concrete mix over time);
- Supplements slowing prehension;
- additives accesskeys setting;
- porizuyuschie (contribute to a focused education in the body of concrete, air and other gases then);
- vozduhovovlekayuschie (surface-active organic substances (SAS involved in the concrete mix, with its mixing of fine air evenly distributed in concrete);
- foams (SAS, which provided an opportunity to obtain technical foam required multiple resistance, which, when mixed with the components of concrete mix provide concrete honeycomb structure or porizovannoy);
- gazoobrazuyuschie (substances that can provide gas from the chemical interaction with the products of cement hydration).

Additives for the hardening of concrete and mortar

- retarder;
- boosters

additives that improve the strength and (or) corrosion resistance, frost resistance of concrete and reinforced concrete, as well as reduce the permeability of concrete

- vodoredutsiruyuschie I, II, III, IV group;
- reducing permeability:
- kolmatiruyuschie pores;
- gazoobrazuyuschie;
- vozduhovovlekayuschie;
- additives that enhance the protective properties of concrete in relation to the steel bars (steel corrosion inhibitors);
- increasing the frost resistance;
- raising sulfatostoykost;
- increases the resistance against corrosion caused by the reaction of silica aggregates with alkalis of cement and additives;
- regulating processes of shrinkage and expansion.

additives that give concrete and specific solutions properties
< br /> - anti-(lowering the temperature of freezing water in the concrete and ensure the hardening of concrete at negative temperatures);
- gidrofobiziruyuschie (substances that give the walls of pores and capillaries of concrete hydrophobic (water resistant) properties);
- biotsidnye (agents for concrete and mortar biostoykost);
- increasing the resistance to vysoloobrazovaniyu.

mineral supplements are a separate group of additives in concrete, which are injected with pomole cement clinker or directly to the concrete mix. They represent a natural or artificial substance which, when mixed in tonkoizmelchennom able to air zatvorenii lime and water to form a dough that can, after hardening in the air to continue to consolidate and under water. As a natural active mineral supplements are widely used by sedimentary rocks (diatomite, Trepel, opoku ) and igneous rocks (volcanic ash, tuff, pumice). Artificial active mineral supplements are a waste by-products and industry: granulated blast slag, the waste produced from the burning of solid fuels - ash-UPDA, waste ferrosilitsiya - mikrokremnezem. active mineral additives used to improve the density, water resistance, solestoykosti concrete and mortar. Some of them are used for cooking zharoupornyh concrete and mortar at portlandtsemente.

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